Portable XRFs – the big guns in mining and exploration

Portable XRFs – The Big Guns In Mining And Exploration

Any mining company or contractor should conduct a due diligence phase prior to a property acquisition or before digging into a site.

Similarly, logging drill core to determine its geochemistry at the feasibility study stage makes sense to avoid any surprises further into the project.

But these phases take up valuable time, resources and money.

Thankfully, the mining and exploration industries continue to develop, and we now have specialised hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) devices to make determining the geochemistry of rock and soil samples easier and faster.

There are a few Portable XRFs (PXRFs) on the market, but some are better than others.

Meet The Niton XL5 Plus

As a geochemistry tool, there’s something special about the Thermo Fisher Niton XL5 Plus

Aside from its striking colour and sleek design, it’s one of the best handheld elemental XRF analysers out there to support your field-based decision making or to offer enhancement to any multi-element geochemical data plotting.

Combined with the right sample handling and protocols, it can save time, lower your costs and add value to your mineral exploration and mining settings when it is used in a fit-for-purpose application.

Benefits of portable XRF analyser

  • Quantify up to 41 elements simultaneously
  • Most analysis is performed within seconds – this increases your productivity
  • You have the performance of a lab-grade EDXRF spectrometer in the palm of your hand
  • It’s Intuitive, easy-to-operate interface
    WiFi, Bluetooth and GPS – built-in
  • Hot-swappable battery, can be charged by UPS trickle-charge or 12V DC
  • Has an internal system check standard
  • Accessories built for the industry
  • Backed by local support, knowledge, service
  • Large, installed customer database

Features of portable XRF analyser

  • Easy to use
  • Lightweight
  • Cost-effective
  • Nondestructive
  • Accurate results
  • Instant results
  • Can be used on-site
Chemical/ Elemental analysis is achieved through Thermo Fisher Scientific’s range of Niton hand-held XRF analysers.
Mining drlling

Why You Need This For Mining And Exploration

There are many mining companies – across nickel, iron ore, uranium, gold and base metal mines – already using portable XRF analysers in their day-to-day processes as a screening tool.

They do this because they know it saves them valuable time and money.

Broad Mining Applications Of A Portable XRF

  • Mineral exploration
  • Environmental and mine closure
  • Mineral processing and geometallurgy
  • Mining and grade control

Let’s break this down, and dig deeper into some more specific uses.

Soil Sampling

This is usually one of the first stages of any exploration project.

Grids are often set up where samples are collected on a grid spacing, so with the PXRF you can easily take samples, sieve it, analyse it and move on to the next sample, getting through these large grids much faster than with traditional methods.

You can store the data in the analyser or send it to the field camp or lab for further analysis.

Real-time analysis with handheld XRF analysers is also a good way to prequalify samples for off-site lab analysis to ensure only the best samples are evaluated, saving you money.

XRF analysers can be used for in-quarry exploration and evaluating the composition of raw materials such as phosphate, sulphides, potash, gypsum and limestone for industrial use.

 
Soil testing

Real-Time Field Mapping

When you’re at ground level with your geopick, rock sampling, you can use the PXRF to test those rock-chip samples immediately to find out if certain elements are present.

You can then use the onboard GPS with the analyser and start creating contour maps of concentrations of the particular elements you are searching for before you even start to dig in an area.

PXRF analysers quickly deliver exploration data for quantitative geochemical analysis of metal concentrations for all types of mine mapping.

Again, you can then send that data to the field camp or the laboratory for easy collaboration and informed decisions.

The PXRF can help you map dangerous or previously inaccessible sites.

Portable handheld analysers can be operated virtually anywhere onsite and easily accommodate a wide variation of samples.

In The Drilling Phase

From a reverse circulation drill rig, your sample return can get you a read on any pathfinders or heat values.

This helps you decide whether to keep drilling or to stop drilling in an area.

The beauty of these samples is they are very homogenous.

Samples can be pre-screened with XL5 and you only need to send samples that have got known mineralisation back to the lab for testing. This can save you substantially, considering the lab costs involved.

Oil And Gas Exploration

XRF analysers are valuable for upstream exploration and production, offering rapid, onsite chemical analysis of rocks, cuttings, and cores that can be used for identifying formations and determining mineral composition of the rock.

Users can infer mineralogical properties favourable to oil and gas production from data collected in real time.

This provides qualitative and quantitative analysis for process and quality control, and rapid inspection and analysis ensures product chemistry specifications are met.

Portable options are lightweight and easy to use, delivering non-destructive analysis and lab-quality results in the field.

Mining exploration

What is geochemistry and why is it important?

Geology studies the structure of the Earth, whereas geochemistry is concerned with the chemical processes that occur in the formation of rocks and minerals.

Geochemistry is vital to our understanding of processes that produce economic concentrations of minerals whether by hydrothermal, magmatic, metamorphic, hydraulic (both surficial and subterranean) or weathering agents, or all of these.

Exploration geochemistry is a spatial sampling and analysis methodology used when searching for mineral resources and routinely for petroleum.

Geochemistry can also help us identify some of today’s most important environmental problems, such as global warming, ozone depletion, and soil and water pollution.

What Makes The Niton XL5 Plus So Special?

The Niton XL5 Plus offers the latest in technology, being the only 5 Watt system available, providing best limits of detection in the range. Plus it’s smaller, lighter, and even more ergonomic.

With it you can obtain geochemical data in seconds and in situ. It’s built for the most demanding analytical applications.

The XL5 Plus allows the x-ray source and fluorescence detector to be closer to the sample, improving limits of detection and shortening measurement time, especially for light elements.

As well as metals, the XL5 Plus measures the elemental composition of scale, sludge, oil, powders and slurries.

Other Key Features Of The XL5 Plus

  • Vivid navigation; customisable user profiles
  • Micro and macro cameras
  • Advanced analytical performance
  • Smaller, faster, lighter
  • Segment leading light element performance
  • Customisable for individual applications

A special mining mode lets users determine the concentration of elements from Mg to U in various types of geochemical materials.

How XRF Technology Works

XRF occurs when a fluorescent (or secondary) x-ray is emitted from a sample that is being excited by a primary x-ray source.

The detector is responsible for determining the elements present in a given sample by accurately and nondestructively “reading” the fluorescent x-rays.

When the characteristic x-rays enter the detector, their electromagnetic energies are converted to electrical pulses. These pulses are then sorted into element channels in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP).

Next, the “counts” from each element are sent to the microprocessor, which contains the algorithms for calculating the concentration of each element from the count rate data.

This makes it substantially advantageous in mining operations, because it provides immediate feedback and allows for quick decision making, including:

  • Whether to stop or continue drilling
  • When to make equipment relocation decisions
  • Where to focus on the grid
  • When to select a sample for laboratory analysis

Thinking about implementing XRF technology to your mining analysis or inspection process? Speak to our team of specialists at Portable Analytical Solutions to find out how the Niton XL5 Plus is best suited to you or your company’s needs.

Portable Analytical Solutions (PAS) offers multiple analysis options for your mining and exploration projects.

Related Resources:

Applications Of PXRF In The Field
XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) Further Explained
Eureka! Portable XRF And Gold Exploration

Niton™Apollo

Niton Apollo

Thermo Fisher ScientificLIBs

Laser focused carbon analysis.

Discover high-speed performance combined with point and shoot simplicity. With minimal training, the Niton Apollo is easily operated even by non-technical users. Fast analysis times help increase sample throughput and production. A hot-swap Milwaukee® battery also keeps users up and running when it’s time to replace a low battery.

Designed to provide fast analysis and low detection limits, the Niton Apollo ensures superior results.

Engineered to help conquer your toughest analytical challenges, the Niton Apollo specialises in measuring carbon content in a convenient, portable form factor.

Powered by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), the Niton Apollo delivers unmatched speed, superior performance and enhanced productivity. Unleash the possibilities and bring the power of lab analysis to the field.

  • Determine alloy composition and grade for a wide range of metallurgical samples
  • Calculate carbon equivalency to determine piping weldability
  • Verify critical assets, such as, piping, valves and reaction vessels for Positive Material Identification (PMI)
  • Inspect materials at receiving, in-process fabrication and outgoing Quality Control (QC)
  • Validate Material Test Reports (MTR)
  • Prevent contaminated scrap from entering the supply stream 
  • Detect tramp and trace elements to meet regulatory standards

Key Applications for the Niton Apollo

Alloys / Metal Fabrication / Scrap Metal / Oil & Gas

Speak to PAS for expert guidance about the Thermo Fisher Niton Apollo

Demonstration Videos

Guide to PXRF Instruments

Guide to PXRF Instruments

 

Portable Analytical Solutions

XL2 & XL5 PXRF Instruments

After you’ve identified that a Portable XRF (PXRF)  instrument will suit your analysing needs, the next question is which instrument will suit your needs best.

This article outlines the details of each PXRF instrument, to help you make a more informed decision.

 

Niton XL2 PXRF

The XL2 Portable XRF Analyser provides immediate, nondestructive elemental analysis for a wide range of applications. It can detect alloy materials from titanium to nickel, as well as tramp and trace element analysis. The XL2’s standard analytical range spans up to 30 elements from sulphur to uranium.

This instrument is lightweight, rugged and built for harsh conditions:

  • Sealed against moisture and dust
  • Ergonomically designed
  • Daylight-readable icons on colour, touch-screen display

Applications for the Niton XL2

  • General Metal
  • Gold
  • Ore
  • Lead Contamination
  • RoHS
  • Alloy
  • Mine Management
  • Waste
  • Hazmat

Niton XL2 Plus PXRF

This is a tough, powerful, handheld instrument for identifying metal alloys and mineral ores easily in the field. It can identify Niobium in Titanium alloys down to 200 ppm and more generally, elements from Magnesium to Uranium, down to 20 ppm in common alloys.

Applications for the Niton XL2 PLus

  • Verification of metals and alloys in manufacturing operations
  • Quality Assurance testing for positive material identification
  • Handheld point-and-shoot sorting at scrap recycling operations
  • Precious metal assay of bullion and jewellery

Niton XL3 PXRF

The Niton XL3 is an advanced Portable XRF analyser with sophisticated models designed for specific industry applications. A tilting, colour, touch-screen display allows easy viewing of sample results under any condition.

The optional integrated camera allows users to locate, view, and store the analysis image and the test results for later reference.

The handheld Niton XL3t GOLDD+ for light element (Mg-S) analysis offers the lowest limits of detection and fastest measurement times.

  • Integrated GPS on some models
  • Rapid accurate decisions on-site
  • Low limits of detection
  • Optimisation for light elements in some models

Applications for the Niton XL3

  • Geochemical
  • Mining and Exploration
  • Manufacturing
  • Engineering
  • PMI
  • Scrap Metal Recycling
Niton™ XL3 Analyser Handheld

Niton XL5 PXRF

This top range model has the best limits of detection in the range, and is smaller, lighter and even more ergonomic.

The XL5 allows the x-ray source and fluorescence detector to be closer to the sample, improving limits of detection and shortening measurement time, especially for light elements.

As well as metals, the XL5 measures the elemental composition of scale, sludge, oil, powders and slurries.

  • Vivid navigation; customisable user profiles
  • Micro and macro cameras
  • Advanced analytical performance
  • Lightweight ergonomic design.

Utilise Mining Mode to gather accurate, real time geochemical data and maximise overall productivity:

Mining Mode enables users to determine the concentration of elements from Mg to U in various types of geochemical materials. Reduce overheads by implementing the Niton XL5 for cost effective oil and gas exploration, mineral discovery and mining operations.

Applications of the Niton XL5

  • Alloys
  • Metal Fabrication
  • Scrap Metal
  • Mining & Exploration
Niton XL5 PXRF

Niton DXL Portable Benchtop XRF

Niton gold spectrometers quickly provide the exact karat weight and percentages of all elements within an item – easily identifying non-standard, under-karated, and even advanced counterfeit gold with fire assay-comparable accuracy.

With an innovative colour touch-screen display and touch-screen keyboard, the DXL analyses precious metals with speed and accuracy. Its features include:

  • Improved intuitive interface
  • CCD Camera
  • Large sample chamber with a back window for customer view
  • Optional small spot for the isolation of small components
  • Handles small pieces or multiple items simultaneously
  • Non-destructive and simple to operate

With the Niton DXL you can:

  • Simultaneously measure the content of all gold and precious metals without manually changing your calibration based on the metal you’re analysing 
  • Precisely determine the presence and concentration of other trace alloying elements including lead
  • Eliminate the toxicity associated with nitric acid test methods
  • Capture images and focus in on small areas using our integrated cameral and small spot feature (depends on model)

Key Applications for the Niton DXL

  • Gold Buying
  • Jewellers
  • Secondhand Dealers
  • Collectors
Niton DXL

To discuss your PXRF requirements and understand which instrument is best for you, please get in touch and chat with one of our experts.

MicroPhazir PC

MicroPhazir PC Analyzer

Plastic/ Polymer Identification 

MicroPHAZIR device

Recycling of plastics, carpeting and other polymer materials is increasing as more of these products are being recovered, recycled and reused by consumers and recycling facilities. Post-industrial and post-consumer materials need to be accurately identified and sorted to achieve high quality reprocessed material. The Thermo Scientific™ microPHAZIR™ PC Analyzer for Plastic/Polymer Identification is an NIR spectroscopy tool that rapidly screens and identifies a variety of polymers, plastics and fiber types on-site to streamline inspection without compromising accuracy and quality. 

Thermo Scientific microPHAZAIR PC Analyzer for Plastic/Polymer Identification

The 2.75 lb (1.25 kg) microPHAZIR PC Analyzer for Plastic/Polymer Identification is a completely self-contained, powerful and cost-effective tool for the proper sorting and recycling of post-industrial and post-consumer polymer materials and carpet fibers. Simple point-and-shoot operation designed for non-expert users, the analyzer is fully automated, precalibrated, and requires no user input.

Key Applications for the MicroPhazir PC Anlyzer

Identification of a variety of plastic types, including: 
PLA, PET, PP, PS, ABS, PI, PSO, PE, PPS, TPV, PTT, PC, PMP, PBT, PA, PETG, SAN, EVA, PB, PPO, CA, Nylon, PMMA, PUR, PI, PVC, PVA, PLA, Ionomer, Pollyalomer, Vinyl, Styrenic terpolymer, Elastomer

Speak to PAS for expert guidance about the Thermo Scientific MircoPhazir PC





Hyperspec MV.X

Hyperspec MV.X

Headwall PhotonicsSpectral Imaging – Improve The Quality Of Your Food

Hyperspec MV.X Visualize Value at the Speed of Light

The Future of Food using Industry-leading Hyperspec® MV.X platform paired with real-time onboard classification on processing/production lines.

From specialty crops to seafood and poultry, the global food industry adopts advanced tools to ensure the quality and safety of food supplies. Headwall’s award-winning MV.X technology platform overcomes these obstacles by combining a high-performance spectrometer with powerful embedded computing to extract actionable results in real-time. Machine learning and artificial intelligence-powered perClass® MIRA software performs runtime processing and makes model development very intuitive. The web user interface of the MV.X allows for remote control and maintenance of the system.

Concentric Imaging 

Headwall’s HYPERSPEC® family of hyperspectral sensors and imaging systems are small, light, and rugged. The simple but elegant all-concentric design uses precisely-engineered master-quality holographic diffraction gratings and mirrors to deliver high signal-to-noise, high spectral and spatial resolution, and a wide, aberration-corrected field of view.

Line-Scanning

HYPERSPEC® sensors are  line-scanning  hyperspectral cameras (sometimes called  pushbroom) that collect reflected light through an image slit. One row of spatial pixels is collected per frame as motion occurs, with each pixel containing full spectral data.
A hyperspectral data cube thus contains complete X, Y, and wavelength data that can be analyzed and managed through Headwall’s powerful applications software.

Key Benefits

  • Hyperspectral Imaging System: not just a camera
  • Built for challenging VNIR (400-1000nm) machine-vision applications on the processing line
  • Fast onboard, embedded processing for real-time classification
  • GenICam-compliant GigE interface with an IP67-rated housing
  • Flexible yet robust and straightforward workflo

How to Apply the HyperSpec MV-X

Foreign object detection / Contamination detection / Sorting and grading / Process analytics / Safety and Pathogen detection 

Speak to PAS for expert guidance on hyperspectral imaging options from Headwall Photonics.

Applications of PXRF in the field

Applications of PXRF in the Field

 

Portable Analytical Solutions

PXRF In The Field

Handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysers have many applications for elemental analysis

Below is a summary from the Thermo Scientific XRF Technology ebook, of a few industries putting XRF technology to work in daily operations.

 

Metal Alloy Analysis, Identification and Testing

Scrap Metal Recycling

Globalised trade in scrap metal, alloy stock and finished products has resulted in increased costs of alloy mix-ups to suppliers, distributors and industrial consumers. So in order to ensure quality, safety and regulatory compliance, the exact chemical composition of scrap, including the existence of contaminants or hazardous elements, must be determined.

Scrap metal recyclers use handheld PXRF to:

  • Rapidly sort mixed metals
  • Positively identify numerous alloys, including light alloys
  • Guarantee the quality of their product to their customers

Positive Material Identification (PMI)

If critical parts of machinery are made from the wrong metal alloy, or a material that does not meet specifications, it can lead to premature and potentially catastrophic part failures, and result in accidents.

Positive Material Identification (PMI) is the process of inspecting and analysing individual component materials. Portable XRF analysers can perform PMI of:

  • Incoming raw materials
  • Work in progress
  • Final quality assurance of finished parts

Precious Metals & Jewellery Analysis 

Portable XRF analysers are ideal for jewellers and pawn shops to test the purity and composition of precious metals. XRF quickly provides the exact percentages of all elements within an item, easily identifying:

  • Karat and concentration of Gold
  • Non-standard materials
  • Under-karated materials
  • Sophisticated counterfeit precious metals that acid testing is incapable of differentiating 

Metal Fabrication; Quality Assurance & Control

In the metal fabrication and manufacturing process, the potential for material mix-ups and the need for traceability are a concern at every step. Material verification for alloy quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) are critical to product safety.

Prior to product manufacture, Handheld XRF is used for:

  • Inspection of incoming raw material to verify alloy grade and composition
  • Final quality inspection before finished parts are sent to the customer
  • Assurance that the incoming raw materials and outgoing finished parts meet the expected engineering requirements

 

Mining/Geology

Portable XRF analysers are perfect for the mining/geology industries, as they can be operated virtually anywhere on site and easily accommodate a wide variation of samples, with little or no sample preparation.

This makes them substantially advantageous in mining operations, because it provides immediate feedback and allows for quick decision making, including:

  • Whether to stop or continue drilling
  • When to make equipment relocation decisions
  • Where to focus on the grid
  • When to select a sample for laboratory analysis

The real-time analysis of a handheld XRF also prequalifies samples for off-site lab analysis, which ensures only the best samples are evaluated.

Below are specific applications of the PXRF within mining/geology:

Exploration

XRF analysers quickly deliver exploration data for quantitative geochemical analysis of metal concentrations for mine mapping. 

Production and Mineral Processing

Fast, laboratory-grade sample analysis data for process control, quality assurance and other operational decisions.

Mine Site Analysis and Extraction

Send data to quarry laboratory and operations management personnel for easy collaboration and informed decisions. 

Industrial Minerals Evaluation

In-quarry exploration and evaluating the composition of raw materials such as phosphate, potash, gypsum and limestone for industrial use.

Oil & Gas Exploration

Valuable for upstream exploration and production, offering rapid, on-site chemical analysis of rocks, cuttings, and cores that can be used for identifying formations and determining mineral composition of the rock. Users can infer mineralogical properties favourable to oil and gas production from data collected in real time. 

 

Toys and Consumer Goods

Consumer goods such as toys, apparel, jewellery, cosmetics and furniture are now routinely screened using XRF analysers. This protocol largely came as a result of The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) of 2008, which was signed into law to combat the alarming amounts of lead found in children’s toys.

Both the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and Europe’s PROSAFE (Product Safety) use XRF analysers for screening toys and consumer goods.

Worldwide Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) regulations continue to impact the manufacturers of electrical and electronic goods and their supply chains…as do the halogen-free initiatives. Handheld XRF analysers help enforcement agencies screen goods for:

  • Mercury
  • Lead
  • Other harmful materials

 

Environmental Analysis / Remediation

PXRF analysers provide on-site analysis of environmental contaminants, from hazardous site modeling and risk assessment to on-site contaminant screening and lead paint abatement.

Lead Paint Inspection

Government regulations, such as the U.S. EPA-issued Renovation, Repair and Painting (RRP) Rule, mandate lead-safe work practices for contractors performing renovations. XRF analysers provide conclusive results for lead in samples as referred to in AS/NZS 4361.2:2017associated with the abatement and control of lead-based paint for compliance with RRP and other state and federal requirements.

Soil

Industrial and agricultural sites can become contaminated with lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and other toxic metals. The first remedial step in treating these hazardous areas is accurately assessing the scope and extent of the pollutants in the soil.

XRF analysers provide lab-grade performance in the field, permitting surgical delineation of contamination boundaries while in full compliance with US EPA Method 6200. 

 

Art and Archaeometry

PXRF analysers can collect quantitative elemental data from archaeological samples. This data can be used to:

  • Match pigments and other materials for restoration
  • Help identify how objects have been preserved in the past
  • How to better conserve them for the future
  • Glean important clues to the age of petroglyphs
  • Identify alloys and other materials
  • Help authenticate a variety of art and artifacts

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) requires that Native American cultural artifacts be returned to lineal descendants or affiliated tribes. XRF technology can be used to evaluate these objects for the presence of arsenic or other harmful preservatives before they are returned.

As you can see, the portable XRF devices are incredibly versatile and have a broad range of applications. This is thanks to the software, which can be interchanged within the same device.

To find out more and read the full XRF Technology ebook from Thermo Scientific, click on the button below:

XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) Explained

XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) Explained

 

Portable Analytical Solutions

XRF Explained

XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the chemical composition of materials.

 It has a broad range of applications across many industries, so to understand if and how it might work within your field, let’s take a closer look at what it is.

Specifically, in this article we will discuss:

  • What XRF is
  • How it works
  • Strengths & limitations of XRF

What is an X-Ray

Quite simply, X-rays are light waves that we cannot see. They have a very short wavelength, which corresponds to a very high energy, meaning they can pass through most objects.

X-Ray Properties:

  • Propagated in straight lines at speed of light
  • Absorbed while passing through matter, depending on composition and density of the substance
  • Emitted with energies characteristic of the elements present
  • Affect the electrical properties of liquids and solids
  • Cause biological reactions such as cell damage or genetic mutation
  • Darken photographic plates
  • Ionize gases

What is X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)?

XRF occurs when a fluorescent (or secondary) x-ray is emitted from a sample that is being excited by a primary x-ray source. XRF is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of material composition, because the fluorescence is unique to the elemental composition of the sample – hence why it is so versatile and has a wide range of applications.

The X-Ray Fluorescence Process

A solid or liquid sample is irradiated with high energy x-rays from a controlled x-ray tube.

 

When an atom in the sample is struck with an x-ray of sufficient energy (greater than the atom’s K or L shell binding energy), an electron from one of the atom’s inner orbital shells is dislodged. 

 

The atom regains stability, filling the vacancy left in the inner orbital shell with an electron from one of the atom’s higher energy orbital shells.

 

The electron drops to the lower energy state by releasing a fluorescent x-ray. The energy of this x-ray is equal to the specific difference in energy between two quantum states of the electron. The measurement of this energy is the basis of XRF analysis.

X-Ray Fluorescence Process

What are Portable XRF (PXRF) Analysers?

Handheld and portable XRF analysers provide instant analysis in any field environment, thanks to their lightweight design and ease of use. They are routinely used for rapid quality control inspection and analysis to ensure product chemistry specifications are met, and have become the standard for non-destructive elemental analysis in a wide range of applications.

Now on their seventh generation, portable XRF technology has become increasingly sophisticated, with new capabilities including smaller size, increased speed, better performance and greater ease of use.

Today’s portable XRF analysers are miniaturised and designed for ultra high speed with lab-quality performance.

 

How PXRF Analysers Detect X-Rays

The detector is an important part of all XRF instrumentation, since it is responsible for determining the elements present in a given sample by accurately and nondestructively “reading” the fluorescent x-rays.

When the characteristic x-rays enter the detector, their electromagnetic energies are converted to electrical pulses. These pulses are then sorted into element channels in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP).

Next, the “counts” from each element are sent to the microprocessor, which contains the algorithms for calculating the concentration of each element from the count rate data.

There are two main types of detectors in handheld XRF technology:

 

Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs)

SDDs are high-resolution detectors that can be used in high count-rate applications. The larger the active area of the detector, the more efficiently it can gather and process x-ray counts.

XRF instrumentation employing SDD can be used in applications that require extreme sensitivity, such as the detection of tramp elements that can degrade the performance of alloys.

Residual elements can be measured with a confidence once only possible in the lab. SDD’s are also required to analyse light elements such as Magnesium (Mg), Aluminium (Al), Silicon (Si), Phosphorus (P) and Sulfur (S).

The introduction of SDDs into PXRF instruments has produced significant performance improvements over traditional XRF capabilities.

 

PIN Detectors

This is a high-performance, high-resolution technology conventionally used in handheld and portable XRF instrumentation. It is appropriate for numerous industry applications.

PIN Detectors measure the fluorescence radiation emitted from the sample after it has been irradiated, usually by an x-ray tube (occasionally by a radioactive source). 

Instruments with Silicon PIN detectors are sensitive to X-rays that are higher on the periodic table than Sulfur (S) and tend to be less expensive than instruments with Silicon Drift Detectors. 

 

Limitations of Handheld XRF

The fluorescent x-rays from lighter elements (Z<18) are less energetic and are greatly attenuated as the x-rays pass through air, meaning analysis of these elements with handheld XRF can be challenging.

Spectral Effects

Some elements have lines that overlap other elements, which can make detection challenging – especially when two overlapping elements are present.

Fortunately the software will strip out and correct most of these overlaps (as long as the interfering element is in the mode being used).

Matrix Effects

The matrix refers to any other element present in the sample, other than the one element being considered. 

If however you are using a fundamental parameters based calibration with all the necessary elements present, enhancement and absorption effects are typically taken care of in the software.

Enhancement Effects

Some fluorescent x-rays have more energy than the binding energy of other elements present in the sample, so their energy will excite those other elements. These elements will give a greater signal return to the detector, therefore “enhancing” the reading.

Absorption Effects

If the fluorescent x-ray is scattered or absorbed by other elements present in the sample, it will not reach the detector so the signal is weaker.

Sample Effects

XRF is a surface analysis technique, so if the surface of the material being analysed is not representative of the entire sample (particle size, inhomogeneity, surface contamination etc) the results will be skewed.

 

Strengths of Portable Handheld XRF Analysers

  • Lightweight
  • Easy to use
  • Cost-effective
  • Nondestructive
  • Accurate results
  • Instant results
  • Portable
  • Used onsite

 

If you’d like to discuss your PXRF requirements, please get in touch and chat with one of our experts.

microPHAZIR AS

microPHAZIR AS
Asbestos Analyser

Thermo Fisher Scientific – NIR

MicroPHAZIR AS Asbestos Analyser

Fast, accurate asbestos detection saves lives.

The microPHAZIR AS enables powerful, in-field rapid screening and identification of six (6) types of regulated asbestos fibres using non-destructive analysis through NIR technology.

Currently, asbestos detection is limited to accredited lab-based analysis such as polarised light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. These lab-based tests can be costly and time consuming.

Portable Analytical Solutions is proud to bring this critical solution for portable asbestos analysis to the competitive construction, environment and waste management industries.

  • Weighs 1.25kg
  • Point and shoot operation
  • Results in under 10 seconds, stored on-board until later download
  • Reliable analysis of 6 types of asbestos fibres

Key Applications for microPHAZIR AS

Environmental / Waste Management / Construction / Government Regulation

Speak to PAS for expert guidance about the Thermo Fisher microPHAZIR AS.

Growscreen Rhizo

Lemnatec™ Growscreen Rhizo

Portable Analytical Solutions

growscreen rhizo

A combined root and shoot phenotyping solution for glasshouses, growth rooms, climate chambers, cultivation halls, or indoor farms 

Challenges in root phenotyping

While most phenotyping solutions focus on above-ground traits of the plants, roots are usually hidden in soil and thus not accessible to measurements. To make them visible, specific cultivation measures are available. The Growscreen Rhizo uses soil-filled rhizoboxes placed at 45° angle that have a transparent plate where roots are visible for image recording. In collaboration with and under licence of the Forschungszentrum Jülich, LemnaTec offers the Growscreen Rhizo as combined root-and shoot- phenotyping system. Core component is an image acquisition cabinet with high-resolution cameras focused on the roots and the shoots of the plants. Thereby, classical shoot imaging is done simultaneously with precision root imaging. The cabinet is also equipped with dedicated illumination to enable optimal image recording.

Advantages of Growscreen Rhizo

We offer an automated root and shoot phenotyping system for soil-based systems that is superior to other methods that use artificial media for plant growth.

  • Roots in soil – no artificial media required
  • Soil-filled rhizoboxes at 45° angle
  • Non-destructive – access to roots without digging or washing
  • Time-course studies
  • Root- and Shoot data for each plant
  • High-resolution root imaging
  • High-resolution shoot imaging
  • Advanced analytical software, machine learning algorithms available
  • Weighing and watering option
  • Automation options

Technological features

Roots and shoots of the growing plants are imaged with industry-grade high-resolution cameras, combined with advanced light technology that allows reflection-free image recording.

A balance and water supply system can be mounted for precise control of soil water content, enabling growth scenarios with different water availability.

Automation technology is available to move in and out the rhizoboxes so that experiments with repeated time-course measurements can be planned. Automation can be done with conveyer-based systems or with magazine automation technology, depending on the local requirements.

Software tools give access to shoot- and root- phenotypic traits such as growth and morphology. Root systems are characterised for root system depth and width and for spatial root distribution, together with root length and width data, rooting angles or total root area. Shoot systems are analysed for height, width, area, and morphological factors, together with colour data.

We recommend to record environmental data in the plant growth area, such as temperature, light, or air humidity. We offer recording systems that store the environmental data together with the phenotypic data of the corresponding plants.



For more details, download the brochure

growscreen rhizo segmenting

For more details, download the brochure

Canopy Scanalyzer

Lemnatec™ Canopy Scanalyzer

Portable Analytical Solutions

growth chamber canaopy scanalyzer
industrial greenhouse

Canopy Scanalyzer solutions for glasshouses, growth rooms, climate chambers, cultivation halls, or indoor farms 

Automated high-throughput Canopy Scanalyzers combine rapid automated data recording with advanced analytical software and machine learning.

LemnaTec is the global specialist for automated Scanalyzer Solutions that not only save time and labour, but also provide a much broader base of information compared to visual scoring. The Canopy Scanalyzer technology is dedicated to users who work with ground-standing plants – directly in soil, in containers, or pots – that are not movable, or not intended to move. The sensor-to-plant system records imaging data from above the plants, and usually delivers data on plant canopies rather than on individual plants.

  • Sensor to plant
  • Sensors mounted on gantry structure that moves across plant area
  • Fixed plant positions
  • Broad range of imaging and sensing modules
  • Dedicated optics and illumination
  • Available for a range of dimensions
  • Sensing equipment in a sensor bay mounted on the gantry or sensor exchange system

We recommend to record environmental data in the plant growth area, such as temperature, light, or air humidity. We offer recording systems that store the environmental data together with the phenotypic data of the corresponding plants.



For more details, download the brochure

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